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It did most of the legislating and sat as a court for serious public offenses.Rome received its first written law code, inscribed upon 12 bronze tablets and publicly displayed in the forum.The Romans occupied Carthage and eventually destroyed it completely in 146.The defeat of this powerful rival sustained the Romans’ acquisitive momentum, and they set their sights on the entire Mediterranean area.Its provisions concerned such matters as legal procedure, debt foreclosure, paternal authority over children, property rights, inheritance, and funerary regulations.This so-called Latium—owing to the achievements of its Etruscan overlords—but Tibur (Tivoli), Praeneste, and Tusculum were equally important Latin states.
Rather than restoring their king, the Romans replaced the kingship with two annually elected magistrates called During the early Roman Republic, important new political offices and institutions were created, and old ones were adapted to cope with the changing needs of the state.Although the Latins dwelled in politically independent towns, their common language and culture produced cooperation in religion, law, and warfare.(This cooperation has come to be known as the Latin League.) The Latin states occasionally waged war among themselves, but in times of common danger they banded together for mutual defense.; the invaders departed, however, after they received a ransom in gold.For a time the common people were placated with bread and circuses, as the authorities attempted to divert their attention from the gap between their standard of living and that of the aristocracy.Slavery fueled the Roman economy, and its rewards for the wealthy turned out to be disastrous for the working classes.
According to the ancient historians, these changes and innovations resulted from a political struggle between two social orders, the patricians and the plebeians, that began during the first years of the republic and lasted for more than 200 years.